Emergency SOS is a feature that was introduced in iOS 11. The feature allows you to place an Emergency call. You're iPhone automatically calls the local emergency telephone number. In some countries and regions, you may need to specify what emergency service you need. i.e. in China, you can choose police fire or ambulance. 

Another great feature that SOS includes is the ability to alert your emergency contacts with a text message (unless you cancel) the message contains your current location, and for a period it sends updates to your emergency contacts when your location changes.

If you use the Emergency SOS shortcut, you need to enter your passcode to re-enable Touch ID, even if you don't complete a call to emergency services. 

To place an Emergency SOS call on an iPhone 7 or earlier rapidly press the side (or top) button 5 times then depending on your configuration it will auto call Emergency Services, or grab the Emergency SOS Slider. (In India, you only need to press the button three times, then your phone will automatically call Emergency Services)

To place an Emergency SOS call on an iPhone 8 or later press and hold the side button and one of the volume buttons until the Emergency SOS slider shows then drag the Emergency SOS.

To place an Emergency SOS call on an iPhone 8 or later press and hold the side button and one of the volume buttons until the Emergency SOS slider shows then drag the Emergency SOS.

After the call ends, your iPhone sends your Emergency contacts a text message with your current location, unless you choose to cancel. If Location Services is off, it will temporarily turn on. If your location changes, your contacts will get an update, and you'll get a notification about 10 minutes later.

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